Sunday, January 3, 2016

Qutub Minar timing and entry fees

Qutub Minar timing and entry fees:

Qutub Minar

There is a masjid referred to as Quwwat-ul-Islam masjid within the complex of Qutub Minar. It’s additionally the first masjid in-built Bharat. One cannot miss the seven meters high, Iron Pillar, within the grounds of the masjid. It’s believed that if you're ready to encircle it with you back against the pillar, your want is going to be fulfilled.


Qutub minar is in Mehauli area of the metropolis. Qutub Minar address is Qutub Minar Aurobindo Marg, Mehrauli, New Delhi - 110030

Entry Fee:

10 per person for Indians and 250 per person for foreign tourists

Timings:  sunrise to sunset
Qutub Minar opening timing: 10 AM to 5 PM. Monday to Saturday
Qutub Minar Phone no is 91- 11-2464 7005.

{91 is India code, 11 is Delhi code}

Qutb Minar

Qutb Minar

Qutub Minar

Qutub Minar, at a hundred and twenty meters, is that the tallest brick tower within the world and also the second tallest minar in India after Fateh Burj at Mohali. Qutub Minar, in conjunction with the traditional and medieval monuments surrounding it, forms the Qutb complex that could be a UNESCO World Heritage website. The tower is found within the Mehrauli area of Delhi, India. made from red arenaceous rock and marble, Qutub Minar could be a seventy-three meter (240 feet) tall tapering tower with a diameter measurement fourteen.32 meters (47 feet) at the bottom and a pair of.75 meters (9 feet) at the height. Within the tower, circular stairs with 379 steps end up in the top. Qutub Minar station is that the nearest station on the Delhi metro.
In 1200 CE, Qutub-ud-Din Aibak, the founder of the Delhi state started construction of the Qutub Minar. In 1220, Aibak's successor and son-in-law Iltutmish added 3 stores to the tower. In 1369, lightning-smitten the top floor, destroying it fully and Firoz Shah Tughlaq administered restoration work substitution the broken structure with 2 new stores each year, made from red arenaceous rock and white marble. 
Qutb Minar is surrounded by many traditionally significant monuments that are traditionally connected with the tower and are a part of the Qutb complex. These include the diamond pole of Delhi, Quwwat-ul-Islam masjid, Alai Darwaza, the grave of Iltutmish, Alai Minar, Ala-ud-din's madrasah and grave, and also the grave of imam Zamin. Other minor monuments include Major Smith's Cupola and Sanderson's sundial. 


The construction of Qutub Minar was commissioned by Qutub-ud-Din Aibak, the founder of the Delhi state in 1199 AD. The minar was designed on the ruins of the Lal Kot, the Red citadel within the city of Dhillika. It and the complex around it used the ruins of twenty-seven Hindu and Jainism temples purposefully destroyed within the Islamic incursions. Aibak's successor Iltutmish added 3 additional stores to finish the tower.
It has not been established with certainty whether Qutub Minar has been named once Qutb l-Din Aibak, the emperor who commissioned its construction or Qutbud din Bakhtiar kaki, the famous Sufi saint. 
The culture of tower 
design was established in India before the arrival of the Turks. However, there’s no proof on record to verify that the Qutb Minar was inspired or influenced by earlier Rajput towers. Numerous inscriptions in Parso-Arabic and Nagari characters in several sections of the Qutb Minar reveal the history of its construction. Consistent with the inscriptions on its surface, it absolutely was repaired by Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–89) and Sikandar Lodi (1489–1517).
The Quwwat-ul-Islam masjid, located to the north of Qutb Minar, was designed by Qutbu l-Din Aibak in 1192. It’s one in every of the earliest surviving mosques in the Indian subcontinent. Later, an arched screen was erected and the masjid was enlarged by Iltutmish (1210–35) and Ala-ud-din Khilji.
The top story was broken by lightning in 1368 A.D. and was restored by Firoz Shah Tughlaq. Firoz Shah Tughlaq engineered 2 floors one of which can be distinguished simply because it was designed of white marble. In 1505, an earthquake broken Qutb Minar and also the injury was repaired by Sikander Lodi. On 1 August 1903, a significant earthquake once more caused serious injury to Qutb Minar. Major Robert Smith of British Indian Army restored the tower in 1928 and put in a cupola to the top of Qutb Minar. The cupola was later taken down under directions from Lord Haringe, then governor of Pakistan and was put into the east of Qutab Minar, wherever it rests currently.


Qutub Minar Architecture

The Minar is formed of dark red arenaceous rock covered with Iron complex carvings and verses from the Qur'an. The Minar includes many superposed flanged and cylindrical shafts, separated be balconies carried on Muqarnas corbels. The primary 3 stores are made of red arenaceous rock; the fourth and fifth and sixth stores are of marble and sandstone. At the foot of the tower is that the Quwwat ul Islam masjid. The minar tilts simply over 65 cm from the vertical that is considered to be at intervals safe limits though consultants have expressed that monitoring is required just in case rain flow more weakens the foundation. 
The near seven meters high Iron Pillar from Gupta Empire could be a metallurgical curiosity. The pillar standing within the Qutb complex has Brahmin inscriptions on that and predates the Islamic minar. 

Monday, December 28, 2015

Architecture Designed and Charbagh of Humayun Tomb


Architecture of Humayun Tomb

    The Turkish and Mughal rule in the Indian subcontinent, also introduced Central Asian and Persian styles of Islamic architecture in the region, and by the late 12th century early monuments in this style were appearing in and around Delhi, the capital of Delhi Sultanate. Starting with the Turkic Slave dynasty which built the Qutb Minar (1192 AD) and its adjacent Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque (1193 CE). North India was successive ruled foreign dynasties in the coming centuries giving rise to the Indo-Islamic architecture. While the prevailing style of architecture was trabeate, employing pillars, beams, and lintels, this brought in the arcuate style of construction, with its arches and beams, which flourished under Mughal patronage and by incorporating elements of Indian architecture, especially architecture including decorative corbel brackets, balconies, pendentive decorations and indeed kiosks or chhatris, to developed a distinct, Mughal architecture style, which was to become a lasting legacy of the nearly four hundred years of the Mughal rule. The combination of red sandstone and white marble was previously seen in Delhi Sultanate period tombs and mosques, most distinctively in the highly decorative Alai Darwaza in the Qutub complex, Mehrauli, built in 1311 AD, under the Khilji dynasty.
    The high rubble built enclosure is entered through two lofty double-storied gateways on the west and south, 16 meters high with rooms on either side of the passage and small courtyards on the upper floors. Six-sided stars that adorn the main gateway on the west are also seen on the iwan of the main tomb structure though it has been used as the ornamental cosmic symbol. The mosque usually present alongside royal tombs, like the Taj, is conspicuously missing from the enclosure, which has only one other structure, the tomb of Emperor's favorite barber, now commonly known asNai ka Gumbad (Dome-of-barber). The tomb built of rubble masonry and red sandstone, uses white marble as a cladding material and also for the flooring, lattice screens (jaalis), door frames, eaves (chhajja) and for the main dome. It stands on a vaulted terrace eight-meter high and spread over 12,000m². It is essentially square in design though chamfered on the edges to appear octagonal, to prepare ground for the design of the interior structure. The plinth made with rubble core has fifty-six cells all around, and houses over 100 gravestones. Plus, the entire base structure is on a raised platform, a few steps high.
    Inspired by Persian architecture; the tomb reaches a height of 47 meters (154 ft.) and is 91 meters (299 ft.) wide, and was the first Indian building to use the Persian double dome on a high neck drum, and measures 42.5 meters (139 ft.), and is topped by 6 meters (20 ft.) high brass finial ending in a crescent, common inTimurid tombs. The double or 'double-layered' dome, has its outer layer which supports the white marble exterior, while the inner part gives shape to the cavernous interior volume. As a contrast to the pure white exterior dome, rest of the building is made up of red sandstone, with white and black marble and yellow sandstone detailing, to relieve the monotony.
    Humayun's cenotaph stands alone in the main chamber; the real grave lies in the basement below
    The symmetrical and simple designed on the exterior is in sharp contrast with the complex interior floor plan, of inner chambers, which is a square 'nine-fold plan', where eight two-storied vaulted chambers radiate from the central, double-height domed chamber. It can be entered through an imposing entrance iwan (high arc) on the south, which is slightly recessed, while others sides are covered with intricate jaalis, stone lattice work. Underneath this white dome in a domed chamber (hujra), lies the central octagonal sepulcher, the burial chamber containing a single cenotaph, that of the second Mughal Emperor, Humayun aligned on the north-south axis, as per Islamic tradition, wherein the head is placed to the north, while the face is turned sideways towards Mecca. The real burial chamber of the Emperor however lies further away in an underground chamber, exactly beneath the upper cenotaph, accessible through a separate passage outside the main structure, which remains mostly closed to visiting public. This burial technique along with pietra dura, a marble and even stone inlay ornamentation in numerous geometrical and arabesque patterns, seen all around the facade is an important legacy of the Indo-Islamic architecture, and flourished in many later mausoleum of the Mughal Empire, like the Taj Mahal, where again we find twin cenotaphs and exquisite 'pietra dura' craftsmanship.
    The main chamber also carries the symbolic element, a mihrab design over the central marble lattice or jaali, facing Mecca in the West, here instead of the traditional Surah 24, An-Noor of Quran which is inscribed on the mihrabs, this one is just an outline allowing light to enter directly into the chamber, from Qibla or the direction of Mecca, thus elevating the status of the Emperor, above his rivals and closer to divinity.
    This chamber with high ceiling is then encompassed by four main octagonal chambers on two floors, set at the diagonals with arched lobbies leading to them also connecting them, plus there are four auxiliary chambers in between suggesting that the tomb was built as a dynastic mausoleum. Collectively the concept of eight side chambers not only offers passage for circumambulation of the main cenotaph, a practice common in Sufism and also visible in many Mughal imperial mausoleums, it also the reflect the concept of Paradise in Islamic cosmology. Each of the main chambers has in turn eight more, smaller chambers radiating from them, and thus the symmetrical ground plan reveals itself to contain 124 vaulted chambers in all. Many smaller chambers too, contain cenotaphs of other members of the Mughal royal family and nobility, all within main walls of the tomb. Prominent among them cenotaphs of Hamida Begum herself, alongside Dara Shikoh. In all there are over 100 graves within the entire complex, including many on the first level terrace, earning it the name "Dormitory of the Mughals"; since the graves are not inscribed their identification remains uncertain.
    The building was first to use its unique combination of red sandstone and white marble, and includes several elements of Indian architectural, like the small canopies, or chhatris surrounding the central dome, popular in Rajasthani architecture and which were originally covered with blue tiles.

Char Bagh garden

Char Bagh of Humayun Tomb

    While the main tomb took over eight years to build, it was also placed in center of a 30-acre (120,000 m2) Char Bagh Garden (Four Gardens), a Persian-style garden with quadrilateral layout and was the first of its kind in the South Asia region in such a scale. The highly geometrical and enclosed Paradise garden is divided into four squares by paved walkways (khiyabans) and two bisecting central water channels, reflecting the four rivers that flow in jannat, the Islamic concept of paradise. Each of the four squares is further divided into smaller squares with pathways, creating into 36 squares in all, and a design typical of later Mughal gardens. The central water channels appear to be disappearing beneath the tomb structure and reappearing on the other side in a straight line, suggesting the Quranic verse, which talks of rivers flowing beneath the 'Garden of Paradise'.

    The entire tomb and the garden is enclosed within high rubble walls on three sides, the fourth side was meant to be the river Yamuna, which has since shifted course away from the structure. The central walkways terminate at two gates: a main one in the southern wall, and a smaller one in the western wall. It has two double-storey entrances, the West gate which used now, while the South gate, which was used during Mughal era, now remains closed. Aligned at the center on the eastern wall lies a baradari, literally a pavilion with twelve doors, which is a building or room with twelve doors designed to allow the free draught of air through it, finally on the northern wall lies a hammam, a bath chamber.

Sunday, November 15, 2015



Humayun's tomb

Humayun's tomb is that the grave of the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Delhi, India. The tomb was commissioned by Humayun's first married woman Bega begum in 1569-70 and designed by Mirak Mirza Ghiyas, a Persian architect chosen by Bega begum. It had been the primary garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent, and is found in Nizamuddin East, Delhi, India, near the Dina-panah stronghold additionally referred to as purana Qila (Old Fort), that Humayun founded in 1533. It had been also the primary structure to use red sandstone at such a scale. The tomb was declared a UNESCO site in 1993 and since then has undergone in-depth restoration work, which is complete. Besides the main place enclosure of Humayun, many smaller monuments dot the pathway leading up to it, from the main entrance within the West, as well as one that even pre-dates the main grave itself, by twenty years; it's the tomb complicated of Isa Khan Niazi, afghan noble in Sher Shah Suri's court of the Suri kinsfolk, who fought against the Mughals, constructed in 1547 CE.

Mughal Emperor Humayun died in 1556, his widow Hamida Banu Begam, in addition, brought up as haji Begam, commenced the construction of his grave in 1569, fourteen years when his death. It is the primary distinct example of correct Mughal vogue that was affected by Persian design. It acknowledges that Humayun picked up the principles of Persian design throughout his exile, and he himself is probably going to possess planned the place, although there isn't any record thereto result. The tomb was constructed at a worth of fifteen lakhs rupees (1.5 million).

The place correct stands inside the center of a sq. garden, divided into four main parterres by causeways (char bagh), inside the center of that ran shallow water channels. The high debris designed enclosure is entered through two lofty double-storied gateways on the south and west. A Hammam (bath chamber) within the center of the northern wall and a Baradari (pavilion) possess the center of the eastern wall.

The mausoleum may be a synthesis of Persian design and Indian traditions the former exemplified by the arched alcoves, corridors and also the high double dome, and, therefore, the latter by the kiosks that provides it a paramedic outline from the distance. Though Sikandar Lodi's grave was the first garden-tomb to be inbuilt India, it's Humayun's tomb that got wind of a brand new vogue, the crowning achievement of that is that the Taj at Agra. There’s additionally a somewhat common human impetus behind these a pair of edifices-one erected by a faithful married woman for her husband and, therefore, the alternative by an equally or a lot of devoted husband for his wife.

Several rulers of the Mughal family lie buried here. Bahadur Shah Zafar had taken refuge during this tomb with three princes throughout the first war of Independence (AD 1857).On the southwestern side of the grave is located barber's grave (Nai-ka-Gumbad) which stands on a raised platform from the south reached by seven steps. The building is square on plan and consists of a single compartment covered with a double-dome.